Revolution of 1917. order viagra online S. P. Fedorov founded a surgical school and did pioneering studies in surgery of the biliary and urinary tracts; p. A. Gertsen and n. N. Petrov laid the foundations of oncology in the ussr; i. I. Grekov, i. I. Dzhanelidze, v. S. female viagra spray Levit, a. V. Martynov, a. G. viagra online without prescription Savinykh, s. I. Spasokukotskii, v. N. Shamov, and s. S. Iudin made important contributions in connection with abdominal and emergency surgery; n. N. Burdenko and v. viagra no prescription australia A. Oppel’ were instrumental in the development of soviet neurosurgery, surgical endocrinology, and military field surgery; and a. buy cheap viagra V. Vishnevskii contributed to the science of local anesthesia. The notable progress of cardiac surgery in the second half of the 20th century is based on the advances of modern anesthesiology as well as the successful use of heart-lung machines and of devices inducing hypothermia (that is, reducing the temperature of the body). Important work in this field was done by r. Brock and h. C. Suttar (great britain), c. Bailey, m. Debakey. A. Blalock, d. Cooley, and d. viagra substitute walmart Harken (united states), p. Valdoni and a. Dogliotti (italy), c. Crafoord (sweden), and n. M. Amosov, a. N. Bakulev, v. I. Burakovskii, a. A. Vishnevskii, p. A. Kupriianov, e. N. Meshalkin, and b. buy generic viagra V. viagra natural brasil Petrovskii (ussr). Advances in physiology and immunology enabled surgeons in the 1960’s and 1970’s to effect successful transplants of the kidneys (for example, by b. V. Petrovskii in the ussr) as well as of the heart and liver, thus laying the foundations of transplant science. viagra natural brasil The first successful human heart transplant was performed in 1967 by c. Barnard (republic of south africa). Some promising american-soviet joint experiments have recently been made with the goal of creating an artificial heart. Surgery is taught in the surgical departments of medical institutes and schools; in the ussr, instruction is also offered in the departments of topographic anatomy and operative surgery. Additional surgical training and specialization are provided in surgical clinics (including, in the ussr, the institutes of advanced medical training) and the various departments of large hospitals. Scientific research in surgery is centered in the major surgical clinics and specialized surgical institutes. is it possible to overdose on viagra In the ussr such research centers include the institute of clinical and experimental surgery and the a. V. viagra online generic Vishnevskii institute of surgery in moscow, the institutes of emergency medical care in moscow and leningrad, the institute of clinical and experimental surgery in kiev, and the institute of general and emergency surgery in kharkov. The first russian society of surgeons was founded in 1873 in moscow. Surgica.